3 Types of Quality Which Can Make a Customer Happy


According to the research by Professor Noriaki Kano of Tokyo Rika University there are three types of quality which can make a customer satisfied or even happy:

  1. Expected quality (“Must Be’s”)

  2. Desired quality

  3. Excited quality

At the most fundamental level, customers are happy when a business satisfies both their needs and their expectations. What makes customers happy? Well according to the Kano model:

Customers are happy because their «Must Be» needs have been satisfied: «Must-be» needs include the “unspoken” yet expected, basic features or characteristics of a product or service. These are not the elements of service that can necessarily increase satisfaction but without them the customer is left feeling dissatisfied and unhappy. At this level the customer is happy because your service level was at the expected, the usual, the norm.

Customers are happy because the desired service has been performed to the customer’s expected quality: At this level, the customer is happy because you have delivered service at the level your customers spoke of, hoped for and clearly preferred … and you provided the service in the way that they particularly liked. The more of these customer-specific service options that you can deliver (low cost, ease of use, speed, comfort, accessibility) the happier your customer will be.

Customers are happy because you have delighted and excited them with surprising and unbelievable service: Unexpected features or characteristics of service or something special, like an unexpected gift, a non-requested upgrade or premium access to something, delights your customers and increases their happiness. Happiness after all is the result of beneficial outcomes that are greater than expectation. So give your customers a legendary treatment that will make them so happy that they can’t help but share the experience with their friends.


Basic features Основные черты Delight Восхищать
Increase satisfaction Увеличить удовлетворенность Premium access VIP доступ
Feel dissatisfied Чувствовать неудовлетворенность Give smb legendary treatment Незабываемо обойтись c кем-то
Deliver service Предоставлять услугу Can’t help but share Не смогут не поделиться
Accessibility Доступность